FoodFocus has been used in some university research projects. Two related publications are:
Canadian infants' nutrient intakes from complementary foods during the first year of life
This was a major study involving four-day dietary records from 2,663 infants across Canada. Nutrient analysis used FoodFocus analysis logic in batch mode.
This paper is freely available at
BMC Pediatrics 2010, 10:43doi:10.1186/1471-2431-10-43
The official reference is: Friel et al., Canadian infants' nutrient intakes from complementary foods during the first year of life BMC Pediatrics 2010, 10:43
Background: Complementary feeding is currently recommended after six months of age, when the nutrients in breast
milk alone are no longer adequate to support growth. Few studies have examined macro- and micro-nutrient intakes
from complementary foods (CF) only. Our purpose was to assess the sources and nutritional contribution of CF over
the first year of life.
Methods: In July 2003, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on a nationally representative sample of mothers with
infants aged three to 12 months. The survey was administered evenly across all regions of the country and included a
four-day dietary record to assess infants' CF intakes in household (tablespoon) measures (breast milk and formula
intakes excluded). Records from 2,663 infants were analyzed for nutrient and CF food intake according to 12 categories.
Mean daily intakes for infants at each month of age from CF were pooled and compared to the Dietary Reference
Intakes for the respective age range.
Results: At three months of age, 83% of infants were already consuming infant cereals. Fruits and vegetables were
among the most common foods consumed by infants at all ages, while meats were least common at all ages except 12
months. Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from CF generally increased with age. All mean nutrient intakes, except
vitamin D and iron, met CF recommendations at seven to 12 months.
Conclusions: Complementary foods were introduced earlier than recommended. Although mean nutrient intakes
from CF at six to 12 months appear to be adequate among Canadian infants, further attention to iron and vitamin D
intakes and sources may be warranted.
Complementary Food Consumption of Canadian Infants
This paper is based on the same national survey of mothers with infants aged three to 12 months. Nutrient analysis used
FoodFocus analysis logic in batch mode.
The The Open Nutrition Journal
Volume 3 ISSN: 1874-2882
The official reference is: Friel JK, Isaak CA, Hanning R, Miller A: Complementary Food
Consumption of Canadian Infants. Open Nutr J 2008, 2:106-111.
In July, 2003, a cross-sectional survey was conducted by Heinz Canada, on a nationally representative sample
of mothers with infants aged three to 12 months. The surveys mailed to new mothers consisted of 1) a questionnaire to assess demographic information and 2) a four day food diary, providing dietary data for nearly 2,951 infants. The initiation
rate of breastfeeding was 73% for study infants. At three months, 81% of the infants received complementary foods
(mostly cereal, fruits, and vegetables, but some had also been introduced to meats, dairy products, and mixed dishes).
These data suggest a current pattern for the early introduction of complementary foods, some by three months and the
majority by six months of age. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Canada now recommend exclusive
breastfeeding until six months of age. The impact this recommendation may have on the feeding pattern of Canadian
infants remains to be seen.